Measuring the Diverging Components of Race in Multiracial America

Some Relevant Publications


Alba, Richard, and Tariqul Islam. 2009. "The Case of the Disappearing Mexican Americans: An Ethnic-Identity Mystery." Population Research and Policy Review28:109-21.


Bailey, Stanley R. 2008. "Unmixing for Race Making in Brazil." American Journal of Sociology 114(3):577-614.


Baumeister, L., K. Marchi, M. Pearl, R. Williams, and P. Braveman. 2000. "The Validity of Information on 'Race' and 'Hispanic Ethnicity' in California Birth Certificate Data." Health Services Research35(4):869-83.


Boehmer, Ulrike et al. 2002. "Self-Reported vs. Administrative Race/Ethnicity Data and Study Results." American Journal of Public Health92:1471-73.


Bratter, Jenifer. 2007. "Will 'Multiracial': Survive to the Next Generation?: The Racial Classification of Children of Multiracial Parents." Social Forces86(2):821-49.


Bratter, Jenifer L., and Bridget K. Gorman. 2011. "Does Multiracial Matter? A Study of Racial Disparities in Self-Rated Health." Demography48:127-52.


Brown, J. Scott, Steven Hitlin, and Glen H. Elder. 2006. "The Greater Complexity of Lived Race: An Extension of Harris and Sim." Social Science Quarterly87:411-31.


Campbell, Mary E., and Christabel L. Rogalin. 2006. "Categorical Imperatives: The Interaction of Latino and Racial Identification." Social Science Quarterly87:1030-52.


Campbell, Mary E., and Lisa Troyer. 2007. "The Implications of Racial Misclassification by Observers." American Sociological Review72(5):750-65. (See also the comment & reply in 2011, 76(2).)


Darity, Jr., William A., Jason Dietrich, and Darrick Hamilton. 2005. "Bleach in the Rainbow: Latin Ethnicity and Preference for Whiteness." Transforming Anthropology13(2):103-9.


Dowling, Julie A. 2014. Mexican Americans and the Question of Race. University of Texas Press.


Duncan, Brian, and Stephen J. Trejo. 2011. "Intermarriage and the International Transmission of Ethnic Identity and Human Capital for Mexican Americans." Journal of Labor Economics29(2):195-227.


Feliciano, Cynthia, and Belinda Robnett. Forthcoming. "Latinos' Online Data Choices: How Racial Classification by Others Shapes Racial Acceptance of Others." Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race.


Freeman, Jonathan B., Kristin Pauker, Evan P. Apfelbaum, and Nalini Ambady. 2010. "Continuous Dynamics in the Real-Time Perception of Race." Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 46(1):179-85.


Freeman, Jonathan B., Andrew M. Penner, Aliya Saperstein, Matthias Scheutz, and Nalini Ambady. 2011. "Looking the Part: Social Status Cues Shape Race Perception." PLoS ONE 6(9):e25107.


Gaither, Sarah E. et al. 2014. "Essentialist Thinking Predicts Decrements in Children's Memory for Racially Ambiguous Faces." Developmental Psychology50(2):482-88.


Carla Goar, Jane Sell, Bianca Manago, Calixto Melero, and Bobbi Reidinger. 2013. "Race and Ethnic Composition of Groups: Experimental Investigations." Pp. 47-75 in Shane R. Thye and Edward J. Lawler (ed.)Advances in Group Processes (Advances in Group Processes, Volume 30, Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Golash-Boza, Tanya. 2006. "Dropping the Hyphen? Becoming Latino(a)-American through Racialized Assimilation." Social Forces85:27-55.


Golash-Boza, Tanya, and William A. Darity. 2008. "Latino Racial Choices: The Effects of Skin Colour and Discrimination on Latinos' and Latinas' Racial Self-Identifications." Ethnic and Racial Studies31:899-934.


Goldsmith, Arthur H., Darrick Hamilton, and William Darity Jr. 2006. "Shades of Discrimination: Skin Tone and Wages." The American Economic Review96(2):242-45.


Gravlee, Clarence C. 2005. "Ethnic Classification in Southeastern Puerto Rico: The Cultural Model of 'Color.'" Social Forces83(3):949-70.


Gravlee, Clarence C., and William W. Dressler. 2005. "Skin Pigmentation, Self-Perceived Color, and Arterial Blood Pressure in Puerto Rico." American Journal of Human Biology 17(2):195-206.


Gravlee, Clarence C., Amy L. Non, and Connie J. Mulligan. 2009. "Genetic Ancestry, Social Classification, and Racial Inequalities in Blood Pressure in Southeastern Puerto Rico." PLoS ONE 4(9):e6821.


Gullickson, Aaron. 2005. "The Significance of Color Declines: A Re-Analysis of Skin Tone Differentials in Post-Civil Rights America." Social Forces84(1):157-80.


Gullickson, Aaron, and Ann Morning. 2011. "Choosing Race: Multiracial Ancestry and Identification." Social Science Research40(2):498-512.


Guo, Guang et al. 2014. "Genetic Bio-Ancestry and Social Construction of Racial Classification in Social Surveys in the Contemporary United States." Demography51(1):141-72.


Hahn, R. A., J. Mulinaire, and S. M. Teutsch. 1992. "Inconsistencies in Coding of Race and Ethnicity between Birth and Death in US Infants: A New Look at Infant Mortality, 1983 through 1985." Journal of the American Medical Association267:259-63.


Hahn, Robert A. 1999. "Why Race Is Differentially Classified on U.S. Birth and Infant Death Certificates: An Examination of Two Hypotheses." Epidemiology10(2):108-11.


Halberstadt, Jamin, Steven J. Sherman, and Jeffrey W. Sherman. 2011. "Why Barack Obama Is Black A Cognitive Account of Hypodescent." Psychological Science22(1):29-33.


Halder, Indrani et al. 2012. "Biogeographic Ancestry, Self-Identified Race, and Admixture-Phenotype Associations in the Heart SCORE Study." American Journal of Epidemiology 176(2):146-55.


Haney López, Ian F. 1996. White by Law: The Legal Construction of Race. New York: New York University Press.


Harris, David R. 2002. In the Eye of the Beholder: Observed Race and Observer Characteristics. Population Studies Center Research Report No. 02-522.


Harris, David R., and Jeremiah Joseph Sim. 2002. "Who Is Multiracial? Assessing the Complexity of Lived Race." American Sociological Review67:614-27.


Harris, Marvin. 1970. "Referential Ambiguity in the Calculus of Brazilian Racial Identity." Southwestern Journal of Anthropology26:1-14.


Harris, Marvin, Josildeth Gomes Consorte, Joseph Lang, and Bryan Byrne. 1993. "Who Are the Whites?: Imposed Census Categories and the Racial Demography of Brazil." Social Forces 72(2):451-62.


Herman, Melissa. 2004. "Forced to Choose: Some Determinants of Racial Identification in Multiracial Adolescents." Child Development75:730-48.


Herman, Melissa R. 2010. "Do You See What I Am? How Observers' Backgrounds Affect Their Perceptions of Multiracial Faces." Social Psychology Quarterly73(1):58-78.


Herring, Cedric, Verna M. Keith, and Hayward Derrick Horton. 2004. Skin Deep: How Race and Complexion Matter in the "Color Blind" Era. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.


Hill, Harold, Vicki Bruce, and Shigeru Akamatsu. 1995. "Perceiving the Sex and Race of Faces: The Role of Shape and Colour." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences261(1362):367-73.


Hill, Mark E. 2002. "Race of the Interviewer and Perception of Skin Color: Evidence from the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality." American Sociological Review67(1):99-108.


Hirschman, Charles, Richard Alba, and Reynolds Farley. 2000. "The Meaning and Measurement of Race in the U.S. Census: Glimpses into the Future." Demography37:381-93.


Hitlin, Steven, J. Scott Brown, and Glen H. Elder. 2007. "Measuring Latinos: Racial Classifications and Self-Understandings." Social Forces86:587-611.


Hitt, Jack. 2005. "The Newest Indians." The New York Times MagazineAugust 21: Online edition.


Hout, Michael, and Joshua R. Goldstein. 1994. "How 4.5 Million Irish Immigrants Became 40 Million Irish Americans: Demographic And Subjective Aspects of the Ethnic Composition of White Americans." American Sociological Review59:64-82.


Ignatiev, Noel. 1995. How the Irish Became White. New York: Routledge.


Jacobson, Matthew Frye. 1998. Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.


Kana'iaupuni, Shawn Malia, and Carolyn A. Liebler. 2005. "Pondering Poi Dog: Place and Racial Identification of Multiracial Native Hawaiians." Ethnic and Racial Studies28:687-721.


Khanna, Nikki. 2004. "The Role of Reflected Appraisals in Racial Identity: The Case of Multiracial Asians." Social Psychology Quarterly67:115-31.


Klotz, Maren. 2013. "Genetic Knowledge and Family Identity: Managing Gamete Donation in Britain and Germany." Sociology47(5):939-56.


Kressin, Nancy R., Bei-Hung Chang, Ann Hendricks, and Lewis E. Kazis. 2003. "Agreement Between Administrative Data and Patients' Self-Reports of Race/Ethnicity." American Journal of Public Health93:1734-39.


Krosch, Amy R., Leslie Berntsen, David M. Amodio, John T. Jost, and Jay J. Van Bavel. 2013. "On the Ideology of Hypodescent: Political Conservatism Predicts Categorization of Racially Ambiguous Faces as Black." Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 49(6):1196-1203.


Lee, Jennifer, and Frank D. Bean. 2012. The Diversity Paradox: Immigration and the Color Line in Twenty-First Century America. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.


Liebler, Carolyn A., and Timothy Ortyl. 2014. "More Than One Million New American Indians in 2000: Who Are They?" Demography51(3):1101-30.


López, Nancy. 2013. “Contextualizing Lived Race-Gender & the Racialized-Gendered Social Determinants of Health,” in Mapping “Race”: Critical Approaches to Health Disparities Research. Laura Gómez and Nancy López, editors. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, pp. 179-212.


López, Nancy. 2013. “Killing Two Birds With One Stone? Why We Need Two Separate Questions on Race & Ethnicity in 2020 Census and Beyond,” Latino Studies Journal, 11: 428–438


Loveman, Mara, Jeronimo O. Muniz, and Stanley R. Bailey. 2012. "Brazil in Black and White? Race Categories, the Census, and the Study of Inequality." Ethnic and Racial Studies 35(8):1466-83.


Maddox, Keith B. 2004. "Perspectives on Racial Phenotypicality Bias." Personality and Social Psychology Review8(4):383-401.


Maddox, Keith B., and Stephanie Gray Chase. 2004. "Manipulating Subcategory Salience: Exploring the Link between Skin Tone and Social Perception of Blacks." European Journal of Social Psychology34(5):533-46.


Maddox, Keith B., and Stephanie A. Gray. 2002. "Cognitive Representations of Black Americans: Reexploring the Role of Skin Tone." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin28(2):250-59.


Martin, E., Gerber, E., & Redline, C. 2000. Synthesis Report: Census 2000 Alternative Questionnaire Experiment. Final report of Census. U.S. Department of Commerce.


Marks, Jonathan. 2001. "'We're Going to Tell These People Who They Really Are': Science and Relatedness."Pp. 355-83 in Relative Values: Reconfiguring Kinship Studies, edited by Sarah Franklin and Susan McKinnon. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.


Mason. Patrick L. and Andrew Matella, “Stigmatization and Racial Selection after September 11, 2001: self-identity among Arab and Islamic Americans or


Mason, Patrick L. (2014). “Hispanic ancestry and racial self-identity: empirical effects of social interactions,” working paper.


Mays, Vicki M., Ninez A. Ponce, Donna L. Washington, and Susan D. Cochran. 2003. "Classification of Race and Ethnicity: Implications for Public Health." Annual Reviews in Public Health 24:83-110.


Morning, Ann. 2008. "Ethnic Classification in Global Perspective: A Cross-National Survey of the 2000 Census Round." Population Research and Policy Review27:239-72.


Morning, Ann. 2011. The Nature of Race: How Scientists Think and Teach About Human Difference. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.


Nash, Catherine. 2004. "Genetic Kinship." Cultural Studies18:1-33.


Noymer, Andrew, Andrew M. Penner, and Aliya Saperstein. 2011. "Cause of Death Affects Racial Classification on Death Certificates." PLoS ONE6(1):e15812.


Pauker, Kristin, and Nalini Ambady. 2009. "Multiracial Faces: How Categorization Affects Memory at the Boundaries of Race." Journal of Social Issues65(1):69-86.


Peery, Destiny, and Galen V. Bodenhausen. 2008. "Black + White = Black Hypodescent in Reflexive Categorization of Racially Ambiguous Faces." Psychological Science 19(10):973-77.


Penner, Andrew M., and Aliya Saperstein. 2008. "How Social Status Shapes Race." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences105(50):19628-30.


Penner, Andrew M., and Aliya Saperstein. 2013. "Engendering Racial Perceptions: An Intersectional Analysis of How Social Status Shapes Race." Gender & Society27(3):319-44.


Perez, Marco V. et al. 2013. "African American Race but Not Genome-Wide Ancestry Is Negatively Associated with Atrial Fibrillation among Postmenopausal Women in the Women's Health Initiative." American Heart Journal166(3):566-572.e1.


Perlmann, Joel, and Mary C. Waters. 2002. The New Race Question: How the Census Counts Multiracial Individuals. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.


Petruccelli, José Luis. 2004. "Brazil: Color Denominations and Statistical Categorization."


Phillips, Elizabeth M., Adebola O. Odunlami, and Vence L. Bonham. 2007. "Mixed Race: Understanding Difference in the Genome Era." Social Forces86:795-820.


Prewitt, Kenneth. 2013. What Is Your Race?: The Census and Our Flawed Efforts to Classify Americans. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.


Relethford, John H., Michael P. Stern, Sharon P. Gaskill, and Helen P. Hazuda. 1983. "Social Class, Admixture, and Skin Color Variation in Mexican-Americans and Anglo-Americans Living in San Antonio, Texas." American Journal of Physical Anthropology61:97-102.


Rodríguez, Clara E. 2000. Changing Race: Latinos, the Census, and the History of Ethnicity in the United States. New York: New York University Press.


Rodríguez, Clara E., Aida Castro, Oscar Garcia, and Analisa Torres. 1991. "Latino Racial Identity: In the Eye of the Beholder?" Latino Studies Journal2:33-48.


Rodríguez, Clara E., Michael H. Miyawaki, and Grigoris Argeros. 2013. "Latino Racial Reporting in the US: To Be or Not To Be." Sociology Compass7(5):390-403.


Ronquillo, Jaclyn et al. 2007. "The Effects of Skin Tone on Race-Related Amygdala Activity: An fMRI Investigation." Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience2(1):39-44.


Roth, Wendy D. 2010. "Racial Mismatch: The Divergence Between Form and Function in Data for Monitoring Racial Discrimination of Hispanics." Social Science Quarterly 91(5):1288-1311.


Roth, Wendy D. 2012. Race Migrations: Latinos and the Cultural Transformation of Race. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.


Saperstein, Aliya. 2006. "Double-Checking the Race Box: Examining Inconsistency between Survey Measures of Observed and Self-Reported Race." Social Forces85:57-74.


Saperstein, Aliya. 2009. "Different Measures, Different Mechanisms: A New Perspective on Racial Disparities in Health Care." Research in the Sociology of Health Care 27:21-45.


Saperstein, Aliya. 2012. "Capturing Complexity in the United States: Which Aspects of Race Matter and When?" Ethnic and Racial Studies35(8):1484-1502.


Saperstein, Aliya. 2013. "Representing the Multidimensionality of Race in Survey Research." in Mapping "Race": Critical Approaches to Health Disparities Research, edited by Laura E. Gomez and Nancy Lopez. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.


Saperstein, Aliya, and Andrew M. Penner. 2010. "The Race of a Criminal Record: How Incarceration Colors Racial Perceptions." Social Problems57(1):92-113.


Saperstein, Aliya, and Andrew M. Penner. 2012. "Racial Fluidity and Inequality in the United States." American Journal of Sociology118(3):676-727.


Saperstein, Aliya, Andrew M. Penner, and Ryan Light. 2013. "Racial Formation in Perspective: Connecting Individuals, Institutions and Power Relations." Annual Review of Sociology 39:359-78.


Schwede, Laurie, Theresa F. Leslie, and Deborah H. Griffin. 2002. "Interviewers' Reported Behaviors in Collecting Race and Hispanic Origin Data."


Sheriff, Robin E. 2001. Dreaming Equality: Color, Race, and Racism in Urban Brazil. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.


Smith, Tom W. 2001. Aspects of Measuring Race: Race by Observation vs. Self-Reporting and Multiple Mentions of Race and Ethnicity. National Opinion Research Center, GSS Methodological Report No. 93.


Snipp, C. Matthew. 2003. "Racial Measurement in the American Census: Past Practices and Implications for the Future." Annual Review of Sociology29(1):563-88.


Stepanikova, Irena. 2010. "Applying a Status Perspective to Racial/ethnic Misclassification: Implications for Health." Advances in Group Processes27:159-83.


Telles, Edward. 2012. "The Overlapping Concepts of Race and Colour in Latin America." Ethnic and Racial Studies35(7):1163-68.


Telles, Edward E. 2004. Race in Another America: The Significance of Skin Color in Brazil. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.


Telles, Edward E., and Nelson Lim. 1998. "Does It Matter Who Answers the Race Question? Racial Classification and Income Inequality in Brazil." Demography35:465-74.


Telles, Edward E., and Christina A. Sue. 2009. "Race Mixture: Boundary Crossing in Comparative Perspective." Annual Review of Sociology35(1):129-46.


Thompson, Victor, and C. Matthew Snipp. 2004. "Observing Racial Hierarchies in the Response Variability of Multiracial Persons." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America, Boston, MA.


U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2012. "Technical Briefing." Results from the 2010 Census Race and Hispanic Origin Alternative Question Experiment. U.S. Department of Commerce.


Vargas, Nicholas. forthcoming. "Latina/o Whitening: Which Latinas/os Self-Classify as White and Report Being Perceived as White by Other Americans?" Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race.


Vargas, Nicholas. 2013. "Off White: Colour-Blind Ideology at the Margins of Whiteness." Ethnic and Racial Studies0(0):1-22.


West, Carmen N. et al. 2005. "Race and Ethnicity: Comparing Medical Records to Self-Reports." Journal of the National Cancer Institute Monographs35:72-74.


Williams, Melissa J., and Jennifer L. Eberhardt. 2008. "Biological Conceptions of Race and the Motivation to Cross Racial Boundaries." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 94(6):1033-47.



Yeung, King-To, and John Levi Martin. 2003. "The Looking Glass Self: An Empirical Test and Elaboration." Social Forces 81:843-79.